The Comma is a fascinating butterfly. The scalloped edges and cryptic colouring of the wings conceal hibernating adults amongst dead leaves, while the larvae, flecked with brown and white markings, bear close resemblance to bird droppings.

The species has a flexible life cycle, which allows it to capitalize on favourable weather conditions. However, the most remarkable feature of the Comma has been its severe decline in the twentieth century and subsequent comeback. It has spread northwards through England and is now widespread in south-east and central Scotland and its range is expanding.

Size and Family

  • Family: Nymphalids
  • Size: Medium
  • Wing Span Range (male to female): 55-60mm

Caterpillar Foodplants

The most widely used foodplant is Common Nettle (Urtica dioica). Other species used include Hop (Humulus lupulus), elms (Ulmus spp.), currants (Ribes spp.), and Willows (Salix spp).



Open woodland and wood edges are the main breeding and hibernating habitats.

Prior to hibernation individuals range more widely in the search for nectar and rotting fruit and are often seen in gardens and many other habitats.